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Warner Music Group – Wikipedia

American global music conglomerate

Warner Music Group Corp.[7] (commonly abbreviated as WMG and referred to as simply Warner Music) is an American multinational entertainment and record label conglomerate headquartered in New York City. It is one of the “big three” recording companies and the third-largest in the global music industry, after Universal Music Group (UMG) and Sony Music Entertainment (SME). Formerly part of Time Warner (now WarnerMedia), WMG was publicly traded on the New York Stock Exchange from 2005 until 2011, when it announced its privatization and sale to Access Industries.[8] It later had its second IPO on Nasdaq in 2020, once again becoming a public company.[9] With a multibillion-dollar annual turnover, WMG employs more than 3,500 people and has operations in more than 50 countries throughout the world.[10]

The company owns and operates some of the largest and most successful labels in the world, including Elektra Records, Reprise Records, Warner Records, Parlophone Records (formerly owned by EMI), and Atlantic Records. WMG also owns Warner Chappell Music, one of the world’s largest music publishers.

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Since August 2, 2018, WMG has expanded its business to digital truyền thông operation through its acquisition of Uproxx .

History[edit]

1950 s and 1960 s[edit]

The film studio Warner Bros. had no record label division at the time one of its contracted actors, Tab Hunter, scored a No. 1 hit tuy nhiên in 1957 for Dot Records, a division of rival Paramount Pictures. In order to prevent any repetition of its actors recording for rival companies, and to also capitalize on the music business, Warner Bros. Records was created in 1958. [ 11 ] [ 12 ] In 1963, Warner purchased Reprise Records, which had been founded by Frank Sinatra three years earlier so that he could have more creative control over his recordings. [ 13 ] With the Reprise acquisition, Warner gained the services of Mo Ostin, who was mainly responsible for the success of Warner / Reprise. [ 14 ]After Warner Bros. was sold to Seven Arts Productions in 1967 ( forming Warner Bros. – Seven Arts ), it purchased Atlantic Records, founded in 1947 and WMG’s oldest label ( until WMG completed its acquisition of Parlophone in 2013 ), as well as its subsidiary Atco Records. This acquisition brought Neil Young into the company fold, initially as a thành viên of Buffalo Springfield. Young became one of Warner’s longest-established artists, recording both as a solo artist and with groups under the Warner-owned Atlantic, Atco, and Reprise labels, as well as making five albums for Geffen Records during that label’s period of Warner distribution. The Geffen catalogue, now owned by Universal Music Group, represents Young’s only major recordings not under WMG ownership .Atlantic, its subsidiary Atco Records, and its affiliate Stax Records paved the way for Warner’s rise to industry prominence. The purchase brought in Atlantic’s lucrative back-catalogue, which included classic recordings by Ray Charles, the Drifters, the Coasters, and many more. In the mid 1960 s, Atlantic / Stax had released a string of landmark soul music recordings by artists including Booker T và the MGs, Sam và Dave, Wilson Pickett, Otis Redding, Ben E. King, and Aretha Franklin. But the marketing led to Stax leaving the Atlantic fold because the new Warner owners insisted on keeping the rights to Stax recordings. However, Atlantic also moved decisively into rock and pop in the late 1960 s and 1970 s, signing major British and American acts including Led Zeppelin, Cream, Crosby Stills và Nash, Yes, Emerson, Lake và Palmer, Average White Band, Dr John, King Crimson, Bette Midler, Roxy Music, and Foreigner .

In 1969, two years after being purchased by Seven Arts, the Warner Bros.-Seven Arts company was sold to the Kinney National Company. In mid-1972, Kinney Music of Canada, Ltd. was renamed WEA Music of Canada, Ltd. (French: WEA Musique du Canada, Ltée) as the Canadian branch of the WEA (Warner, Elektra, Atlantic) company – a division of Warner Communications Inc. Founder and president Ken Middleton ran the Canadian company until his retirement in 1982. The name remained until 1989, when in 1990, it became Warner Music Canada Ltd – a subsidiary of the US-based Warner Music International. Kinney CEO Steve Ross led the group through its most successful period until his death in 1992.

An earlier attempt by Warner Bros. Records to create an in-house distribution arm in 1958 didn’t materialize. So in 1969, Elektra Records boss Jac Holzman approached Atlantic’s Jerry Wexler with the idea of setting up a joint distribution network for Warner, Elektra, and Atlantic. An experimental branch was established in Southern California as a possible prototype for an expanded operation. [ 15 ]

Atlantic exerts autonomy[edit]

It was soon apparent in 1969 that Atlantic / Atco president Ahmet Ertegun viewed Warner / Reprise president Mike Maitland as a rival. Maitland believed that, as vice-president in charge of the Warner Bros. – Seven Arts music division, he should have final say over all recording operations, and he further angered Ertegun by proposing that most of Atlantic’s back-office functions ( such as marketing and distribution ) be combined with the existing departments at Warner / Reprise. In retrospect Ertegun clearly feared that Maitland would ultimately have more power than him, and so he moved rapidly to secure his own position and remove Maitland .Maitland had put off renegotiating the contracts of Joe Smith and Mo Ostin, the presidents of the Warner Bros. and Reprise labels, and this provided Ertegun with an effective means of undermining Maitland. When Wexler — now a major shareholder — found out about the contract issue he and Ertegun began pressuring Eliot Hyman to get Smith and Ostin under contract, ostensibly because they were worried that the two executives might move to rival labels — and in fact Ostin had received overtures from both the MGM and ABC labels .In 1969, the wisdom of Hyman’s investments was proved when Kinney National Company purchased Warner Bros. – Seven Arts for USD 400 million, more than eight times what Hyman had paid for Warner / Reprise and Atlantic combined. From the base of his family’s funeral parlour business, Kinney president Steve Ross had rapidly built the Kinney company into a profitable conglomerate with interests that included comic publishing, the Ashley-Famous talent agency, parking lots and cleaning services. Following the takeover, Warners ‘ music group briefly adopted the ‘ umbrella ‘ name Kinney Music, because U.S. anti-trust laws at the time prevented the three labels from trading as one .Ross was primarily focused on rebuilding the company’s ailing movie division and was happy to defer to the advice of the managers of the company’s record labels, since he knew that they were generating most of the group’s profits. Ertegun’s chiến dịch against Maitland began in earnest that summer. Atlantic had agreed to help Warner Bros. in its efforts to establish its labels overseas, beginning with its soon-to-be-established Warner Bros. subsidiary in nước Australia, but when Warner executive Phil Rose arrived in nước Australia, he discovered that just one week earlier Atlantic had signed a new four-year distribution khuyến mãi with a rival local label, Festival Records ( owned by Rupert Murdoch ‘ s News Limited ). Mike Maitland complained bitterly to Kinney executive Ted Ashley, but to no avail – by this time Ertegun was poised to make his move against Maitland. [ 16 ]As he had with Hyman, Ertegun urged Steve Ross to extend Mo Ostin and Joe Smith’s contracts, a recommendation Ross was happy to accept. Ostin however had received overtures from other companies including MGM Records and ABC Records and when he met with Ertegun in January 1970 and was offered Maitland’s job, he was unwilling to re-sign immediately. In response, Ertegun broadly hinted that Maitland’s days were numbered and that he, Ertegun, was about to take over the recording division .Unlike the Warner / Reprise executives, Atlantic’s execs the Ertegun brothers ( Ahmet and Neshui ) and Wexler owned stock in Kinney. [ 17 ]

Ostin was understandably concerned that, if he accepted the position, the Warner Bros. staff would feel that he had stabbed Maitland in the back, but his attorney convinced him that Maitland’s departure was inevitable, regardless of whether or not he accepted the post (succinctly advising him, “Don’t be a schmuck”). On Sunday January 25, Ted Ashley went to Maitland’s house to tell him he had been dismissed, and Maitland declined the offer of a job at the movie studio. One week later, Mo Ostin was named as the new President of Warner Bros. Records, with Joe Smith as his executive vice-president.[18] Ertegun nominally remained the head of Atlantic, but since both Ostin and Smith owed their new positions to him, Ertegun was now the de facto head of the Warner music division. Ertegun was given the formal title of executive vice-president-Music Group.[17] Maitland moved to MCA Records later that year and successfully consolidated MCA’s labels, which he couldn’t do at Warner.

1970 s[edit]

During the 1970 s, the Kinney group built up a commanding position in the music industry. In 1970, Kinney bought Elektra Records and its sister label Nonesuch Records ( founded by Jac Holzman in 1950 ) for USD 10 million, bringing in leading rock acts, including the Doors, Tim Buckley, and Love, and its historically significant folk archive, along with the successful budget Western classical-music label Nonesuch Records .The purchase of Elektra-Nonesuch brought a rich back catalogue of folk music as well as the renowned Nonesuch catalogue of classical and world music. Elektra founder Jac Holzman ran the label under Warners for two years, but by that time, he was by his own admission ” burnt out ” after twenty years in the business. Kinney president Steve Ross subsequently appointed Holzman as part of a seven-person ” brains trust ” tasked with investigating opportunities presented by new technologies, a role Holzman was eager to accept. [ 19 ] The same year, the group established its first overseas offices in Canada and nước Australia. By that time the ” Seven Arts ” moniker was dropped from the Warner Bros. name. Warner Bros. also founded the Casablanca Records subsidiary, headed by Neil Bogart ; but several years later Casablanca became independent of Warner Bros .

Warner-Elektra-Atlantic and worldwide distribution[edit]

With the Elektra acquisition, the next step was forming an in-house distribution arm for the co-owned labels. By this time, Warner-Reprise’s frustrations with its current distributors had reached breaking point; Joe Smith (then executive vice-president of Warner Bros.) recalled that the Grateful Dead were becoming a major act but the distributor was constantly out of stock of their albums. These circumstances facilitated the full establishment of the group’s in-house distribution arm, initially called Kinney Record Group International.[20][21] By late 1972, US anti-trust laws had changed and the company was renamed Warner-Elektra-Atlantic, WEA for short, which was renamed Warner Music in 1991 (the word “group” was added after the formation of AOL Time Warner in 2001).

WEA was an early champion of heavy metal rock music. Several such bands, including three major British pioneers Led Zeppelin, Black Sabbath, and Deep Purple, were all signed to WEA’s labels, at least in the United States. Among the earliest American metal acts to be signed to WEA were Alice Cooper, Montrose, and Van Halen .

Up to this point the Kinney-owned record companies had relied on licensing deals with overseas record labels to manufacture, distribute and promote its products in other countries; concurrent with the establishment of its new distribution arm, the company now began establishing subsidiaries in the other major markets, beginning with the creation of Warner Bros. Records Australia in 1970, soon followed by branch offices in the UK, Europe and Japan.[22] In July 1971, the new in-house distribution company was incorporated as Warner-Elektra-Atlantic Distributing Corp. (WEA) and branch offices were established in eight major US cities; Joel Friedman a one-time Billboard writer who had been the head of Warner’s advertising/merchandising division in its early years, was appointed to head WEA’s US domestic division, and Ahmet Ertegun’s brother Nesuhi was appointed to oversee its international operations. Neshui Ertegun, originally a Turkish native like his brother, displayed a global perspective and independence from its U.S. counterpart by successfully promoting international acts in their target markets worldwide. Ertegun headed WEA International until his retirement in 1987. A de facto committee of three senior marketing executives—Dave Glew from Atlantic, Ed Rosenblatt from Warner Bros. and Mel Posner from Elektra—oversaw the integration of each label’s marketing and distribution through the new division,[21] but each label continued to operate totally independently in A&R matters and also applied their own expertise in marketing and advertising.[23]

On July 1, 1971, following the pattern set by similar joint ventures in Canada and Australia, the Warner labels entered into a partnership with the British arm of CBS Records to press and distribute Warner-Reprise product in the United Kingdom, although this was undertaken as a cooperative venture rather than a formally incorporated business partnership. The Billboard article that reported the new arrangement also noted that, despite their intense competition in the US market, CBS continued to press Warner-Reprise recordings in the US. However the new UK arrangement was a major blow to Warner’s previous British manufacturer Pye Records, for whom Warner-Reprise had been their largest account. With the scheduled addition of the UK rights to the Atlantic catalogue, which would revert to Kinney in early 1972, Billboard predicted that the Warner-CBS partnership would have a 25–30% share of the UK music market.[24]

In April 1971, thanks mainly to the influence of Ahmet Ertegun, the Kinney group announced a major coup with its acquisition of the worldwide rights to the Rolling Stones ‘ new label Rolling Stones Records, following the expiration of the band’s contract with British Decca ( then separate from the American label ) and the acrimonious end to their business relationship with their former manager Allen Klein. Under the terms of the khuyến mãi, Atlantic subsidiary Atco would distribute the Stones ‘ recordings in the US, with other territories mainly handled by Warner Bros. international divisions. [ 25 ]

One of Kinney’s wisest investments was Fleetwood Mac. The band signed with Reprise in the early 1970s after relocating to the US, and the label supported the group through numerous lineup changes and several lean years during which the band’s records sold relatively poorly, although they remained a popular concert attraction. Ironically, after the group’s transfer to Warner Bros. in 1975 and the recruitment of new members Lindsey Buckingham and Stevie Nicks, the group scored a major international hit with the single “Rhiannon” and consolidated with the best selling albums Fleetwood Mac, Rumours and Tusk.

Warner Communications[edit]

Due to a financial scandal involving price fixing in its parking operations, Kinney National spun off its non-entertainment assets in 1972 ( as National Kinney Corporation ) and changed its name to Warner Communications Inc. [ 26 ]In 1972, the Warner group acquired another rich prize, David Geffen ‘ s Asylum Records. The USD 7 million purchase brought in several acts that proved crucial to WEA’s subsequent success, including Linda Ronstadt, the Eagles, Jackson Browne, Joni Mitchell, and later Warren Zevon. On the downside, however, it was rumored that Warners was soon concerned about its possible liability under the California State Labor Code because of Geffen’s questionable status as both the manager of most of the Asylum acts and the head of the record label to which they were signed. The marketing included the Asylum Records label and its recordings, as well as Geffen’s lucrative music publishing assets and the interests in the royalties of some of the artists managed by Geffen and partner Elliot Roberts. Geffen accepted a five-year contract with WCI and turned over his 75 % share in the Geffen-Roberts management company to Roberts and Warners paid Geffen and Roberts 121,952 common shares worth $ 4,750,000 at the time of the marketing, plus $ 400,000 in cash and a further $ 1.6 million in promissory notes convertible to common stock. [ 27 ]Although it seemed a lucrative khuyến mãi at the time, Geffen soon had reason to regret it. Uncharacteristically, he had greatly underestimated the value of his assets — within Asylum’s first year as a Warner subsidiary, albums by Linda Ronstadt and the Eagles alone had earned more than the entire value of the Asylum marketing. Geffen’s discomfort was compounded by the fact that, within six months of the marketing, the value of his volatile Warner shares had plummeted from $ 4.5 million to just USD 800,000. He appealed to Steve Ross to intervene, and as part of a make-good khuyến mãi, Ross agreed to pay him the difference in the share value over five years. Acting on Jac Holzman’s suggestion that Kinney should take Asylum from Atlantic and merge it with Elektra, Ross then appointed Geffen to run the new combined label. [ 28 ]In 1976, Warner gained a brief early lead in digital truyền thông when it purchased the Atari computer company, and in 1981 it bought The Franklin Mint company. WCI also blazed the trail in visual music with Một Thành Viên, which it created and co-owned in partnership with American Express. In 1984 – 85, Warner rapidly divested many of these recent acquisitions, including Atari, Franklin Mint, Panavision, Một Thành Viên Networks and a cosmetics business .In 1977, Warner Bros. Music, led by president Ed Silvers, formed Pacific Records for their composers and distributed ( appropriately ) by Atlantic Records. Alan O’Day was the first artist signed to the label, and the first release was ” Undercover Angel “. The tuy nhiên, which he described as a ” nocturnal novelette “, was in February 1977. Within a few months it had become No. 1 in the country, and has sold approximately two million copies. It was also a hit in nước Australia, reaching No. 9 on the Australian Singles Chart. ” Undercover Angel ” also landed O’Day in an exclusive club as one of only a handful of writers / performers to pen a No. 1 hit for themselves and a No. 1 for another artist. [ 29 ] [ 30 ]New signings in the late 1970 s placed WEA in a strong position for the 1980 s. A deal with Seymour Stein ‘ s Sire Records label ( which Warner Bros. Records later took over ) brought in several major punk rock and new wave acts including the Pretenders, the Ramones and Talking Heads and, most importantly, rising star Madonna ; Elektra signed the Cars and Warner Bros. signed Prince, giving WEA several of the biggest-selling acts of the decade .WEA’s labels also distributed a number of otherwise independent labels. For example, Warner Bros. distributed Straight Records, DiscReet Records, Bizarre Records, Bearsville Records, and Geffen Records ( the latter was sold to MCA in 1990 ). Atlantic Records distributed Swan Song Records. In 1975, WEA scored a major coup by signing a distribution agreement with Island Records, which only covered the United States and select other countries. For the next 14 years ( initially with Warner Bros. until 1982, then with Atlantic afterward ), WEA would distribute such artists as Bob Marley, U2, Robert Palmer, Anthrax, and Tom Waits. This relationship ended when Island was sold to PolyGram in 1989 .

1980 s[edit]

Logo of WEA InternationalA name-only unit appearing exclusively in the copyright, WEA International Inc., was created in early 1982, to handle distribution of all Warner Bros., Elektra, and Atlantic releases for international countries .A proposed 1983 international merger between PolyGram and WEA was forbidden by both the US Federal Trade Commission and West Germany ‘ s cartel office, so PolyGram’s half-owner Philips then purchased a further 40 % of the company from its partner Siemens, and bought the remaining shares in 1987. The same year, PolyGram divested its film and publishing operations, closed PolyGram Pictures and sold Chappell Music to Warner for US $ 275 million .WEA formed WEA Manufacturing in 1986. [ 31 ] In 1988 WEA took over the German classical label Teldec and the British Magnet label .In 1989, it was announced that Warner Communications was to merge with Time Inc. to form Time Warner, a transaction that was completed in 1990. Following the merger, WEA continued acquiring independent labels, buying CGD Records ( Italy ) and MMG Records ( Nhật Bản ) in 1989 .

1990 s[edit]

Through the 1990 s, Time Warner was the largest truyền thông company in the world, with assets in excess of US $ 20 billion and annual revenues in the billions of dollars ; by 1991, Warner’s music labels were generating sales valued at more than US $ 3 billion, with operating profits of $ 550 million, and by 1995, its music division dominated the US music industry with a 22 % share of the domestic market. [ 32 ] [ 33 ] Acquisitions and corporate changes within the Warner group of labels continued after the Time Warner merger — in 1990, WEA purchased French label Carrere Records, WEA was renamed Warner Music in 1991, leading French classical label Erato ( 1992 ) and in 1993 WEA bought the Spanish DRO Records, Hungary’s Magneoton label, the Swedish Telegram Records, Brazil’s Continental Records and Finnish label Fazer Musiikki .Atlantic launched two new subsidiary labels in the early 1990 s : East West Records and Interscope Records. In 1995, East West absorbed Atco Records and was eventually folded into Elektra Records. In 1996, after causing much controversy, Interscope was purchased by MCA Music Entertainment .

During 1992, Warner Music faced one of the most serious public-relations crises in its history when a major controversy erupted over the provocative Warner Bros. recording “Cop Killer” from the self-titled album by Body Count, a heavy metal/rap fusion band led by Ice-T. Unfortunately for Warner, the song (which mentioned the Rodney King case) was issued just before the controversial acquittal of the police charged with King’s beating, which sparked the 1992 Los Angeles Riots and the confluence of events put the song under the national spotlight. Complaints escalated over the summer—conservative police associations called for a boycott of Time Warner products, politicians including President George H. W. Bush denounced the label for releasing the song, Warner executives received death threats, Time Warner stockholders threatened to pull out of the company and the New Zealand police commissioner unsuccessfully tried to have the record banned there. Although Ice-T later voluntarily reissued Body Count without “Cop Killer”, the furor seriously rattled Warner Music and in January 1993 the label made an undisclosed deal releasing Ice-T from his contract and returning the Body Count master tapes to him.[34]

Also in 1992, the Rhino Records label signed a distribution agreement with Atlantic Records and Time Warner bought a 50 % stake in the Rhino Records label. The distribution agreement allowed Rhino to begin reissuing recordings from Atlantic’s back catalogue .

In 1994, Canadian beverage giant Seagram bought a 14.5% stake in Time Warner, and the Warner publishing division — now called Warner/Chappell Music – acquired CPP/Belwin, becoming the world’s largest owner of song copyrights and the world’s largest publisher of printed music. In 1996, Time Warner made another dramatic expansion of its media holdings, taking over the Turner Broadcasting System, which by then included the Turner cable TV network, CNN and the screen production houses Castle Rock Entertainment and New Line Cinema, acquisitions that brought huge profits into the Warner Group thanks to content assets like Seinfeld and the highly successful The Lord of the Rings film trilogy.

By the early 1990s, senior Warner staff like Ostin and Waronker had remained in their positions for several decades—a highly unusual situation in the American music industry—but the death of Steve Ross destabilized the Time Warner hierarchy, and over the next few years the music group was increasingly disrupted by internal power struggles, leading to a string of major executive upheavals in 1994–95, which The New York Times described as “a virtual civil war”.[35]

The central conflict was between Mo Ostin and Warner Music Group chairman Robert Morgado, who had joined the Warner group in the late 1980 s. Because of his political background ( he had been the chief-of-staff to former Thành Phố New York governor Hugh L. Carey ) and his lack of music industry experience — especially compared to the widely revered Ostin — Morgado was viewed as an outsider at Warner. Nevertheless, he gained favour with Ross and Levin and was promoted in 1985 to oversee the Warner international music division after helping the company slash costs in its computer game sector. [ 33 ]Since his appointment as head of WBR, Ostin had always reported directly to Steve Ross and his successor Gerald Levin, but in late 1993, when Ostin’s contract came up for renewal, Morgado asserted his authority, insisting that Ostin should now report directly to him. The tensions between them reached boiling point in July 1994 when Morgado appointed former Atlantic chief Doug Morris to head the Warner Music Group in the US, a decision that many saw as a deliberate move to hasten the departure of Ostin and Elektra head Robert Krasnow. [ 33 ] Morgado’s new structure was announced in August 1994 and Bob Krasnow resigned from Elektra the next day. Within days, after more than 30 years with the Warner music group and more than 20 years as president and chairman of Warner Bros. Records, Ostin announced he would not renew his current contract and would leave Warners when it expired on December 31, 1994. There was more negative publicity the following month, when leading Elektra act Metallica launched a lawsuit against the label, seeking a release from their contract and ownership of their master tapes, and claiming that Morgado had refused to honour a khuyến mãi they had worked out with Krasnow before he quit .Ostin’s departure marked a seismic shift in the corporate culture at WBR and the news was greeted with dismay by industry insiders and the many artists whose careers he had helped to nurture. Lenny Waronker had agreed to take over as WBR chairman and CEO but in October 1994 he announced that he would not be taking up the position ; he initially said that he would remain as President of WBR, but by this time there was already widespread speculation that he would leave, and he did so soon afterwards. [ 36 ] The following year he re-joined Ostin and son Michael as joint head of the newly launched DreamWorks label. [ 37 ]Beginning in August 1994, Morgado alienated Morris by his clumsy handling of Warner’s relationship with Interscope Records, the successful label founded by Ted Field and Jimmy Iovine and part-owned by Warner. Morgado had resisted making a decision about increasing the Warner stake in Interscope, which encouraged other companies to make overtures to the label ; in response, Morgado threatened to send cease-and-desist notices to executives at several record companies, demanding that they stop approaching Interscope with buyout offers, a move that reportedly infuriated Iovine. [ 33 ]By late 1994, Morris was gaining the upper hand over his rival and truyền thông reports claimed that Morris had moved to settle with Metallica, offering a giảm giá that was reportedly even more generous than the one they had worked out with Krasnow. Morgado now faced a showdown with Morris, who felt he was not being allowed to run WMG as he saw fit. In October 1994, Morris and 11 other Warner executives ” staged an unprecedented insurrection that nearly paralyzed the world’s largest record company “. [ 33 ] This led to a climactic meeting between Morris and Gerald Levin in late October, at which Morris reportedly threatened to quit if he had to continue to report to Morgado. [ 38 ]Morgado gave in to the demand that Morris be granted autonomy to run the North American operations and he was forced to tăng cấp Morris’s position from chief operating officer to Chief Executive of Warner Music Group ( US ) ; Morris promptly named Danny Goldberg, former president of Atlantic Records, to run WBR in defiance of Morgado, who had a different candidate in mind and Levin also reduced Morgado’s power to oversee Warner’s mail-order record club division and its international operations. [ 39 ] [ 33 ] Morris then brought in Sylvia Rhone and Seymour Stein to stabilize Elektra, settled the Metallica lawsuit and persuaded Levin to purchase an additional 25 % of Interscope, although this initiative proved short-lived. [ 33 ]The power struggle between Morgado and Morris reached a dramatic climax in May 1995 when Morgado was asked to resign by Gerald Levin, following a welter of complaints from executives at the three major Warner Music labels, who said that Morgado was undermining Morris’s authority and damaging Warner’s reputation among performers. [ 39 ] Morgado was immediately replaced by HBO chairman Michael J. Fuchs but the corporate upheavals did not end there ; in late June 1995 Fuchs abruptly dismissed Doug Morris, saying that Morris had been ” leading a chiến dịch to destabilize Warner Music in an effort to seize control of the company “. As Morris’s strongest ally, Danny Goldberg was also under threat ; he was initially told that he could stay on as President of WBR as long as he refrained from office politics and concentrate on the day-to-day management of the label, but he resigned as President of Warner Bros. Records soon after to pursue ” other interests “, and was replaced by WBR vice-chairman Russ Thyret .

Despite early success with Dr. Dre and Snoop Dogg, and Morris’s decision to increase Warner’s stake to 50%, by the mid-1990s Interscope Records was being seen as a liability for the Warner group. Time Warner’s board and investors had already been bruised by the damaging 1992 “Cop Killer” controversy and now they were faced with renewed criticism about the gangsta rap genre, in which Interscope’s associate imprint Death Row Records was a key label. In mid-1995, Time Warner refused to distribute the Interscope album Dogg Food by Tha Dogg Pound, forcing the label to seek outside distribution, and late in the year TW sold its stake in Death Row back to co-owners Jimmy Iovine and Ted Field and soon after it sold off its share in Interscope to MCA Music Entertainment.[40]

The upheaval at Warner was beneficial to its rivals, who picked up valuable executives who had left Warner. Goldberg moved over to Mercury Records ; Morris joined MCA Music Entertainment Group and led its reorganization into Universal Music Group, now the world’s largest record company. In November 1995, Fuchs was himself sacked by Levin, leaving the company with a reported US $ 60 million ” golden parachute “, and Time Warner co-chairmen Robert A. Daly and Terry Semel took over the running of the music division. [ 41 ] [ 42 ] [ 43 ]

In 1998, Seagram boss Edgar Bronfman Jr. held talks aimed at merging Seagram’s Universal Music, headed by Morris, with the venerable British recording company EMI, but the discussions came to nothing; Bronfman then oversaw Universal’s takeover by Vivendi. WEA meanwhile continued to expand its publishing empire, buying a 90% stake in the Italian recording and music publishing group Nuova Fonit Cetra.[44]

Also in 1998, Time Warner bought the remaining 50 % of the Rhino Records label they did not own. The Rhino Records retail store in Los Angeles was not included. Rhino then began reissuing the back catalogues of the Warner / Reprise and Elektra / Asylum labels. In 1999, Rhino launched Rhino Handmade, which released limited-edition reissues of lesser-known but still-significant recordings from the WEA labels .

2000 s[edit]

In 2000, Time Warner merged with leading American internet service provider AOL to create AOL Time Warner. The new conglomerate again tried (and failed) to acquire EMI, and subsequent discussions about the takeover of BMG stalled, with Bertelsmann eventually offloading BMG into a joint venture with Sony. In 2002, AOLTW further consolidated its hold over the publishing industry, buying 50% of music publisher Deston Songs from Edel AG. By the early 2000s, however, the effects of the dot-com crash had eroded AOL’s profits and stock value, and in 2003 the Time Warner board sidelined its under-performing partner by dropping AOL from its business name.[45]

As a result of the CD price fixing issue, a settlement was reached in 2002 involving the music publishers and distributors ; Sony Music, WMG, Bertelsmann Music Group, EMI Music, Universal Music. In restitution for price fixing they agreed to pay a $ 67.4 million fine and distribute $ 75.7 million in CDs to public and non-profit groups but admitted no wrongdoing. [ 46 ]Looking to reduce its debt load, Time Warner — the corporate successor to Warner Communications — sold Warner Music Group in 2004 to a group of investors led by Edgar Bronfman Jr. for US $ 2.6 billion. This spinoff was completed on February 27, 2004. In the 2004 transition to independent ownership, WMG hired record industry heavyweight Lyor Cohen from Universal Music Group ( the result of the merger between the PolyGram and MCA label families ) to attempt to reduce cost and increase performance. Time Warner ( now WarnerMedia ) no longer retains any ownership in WMG, though it had the option to reacquire up to 20 % of WMG for three years following the closing of the transaction. WMG did, however, have a royalty-free license to use the Warner Bros. shield for 15 years, as well as the old Warner Communications logo as WMG’s main logo. [ 47 ] With the expiration of the royalty-free license in May 2019, Warner Bros. Records ( which became separate from the eponymous film studio after the spinoff ) was renamed Warner Records and a new logo was introduced to replace the WB shield. [ 48 ]Once không lấy phí of Time Warner, WMG began cutting costs by offloading loss-making or low-earning divisions. Like its rival EMI, Warner reacted to the growth of the digital music market by making a historic change, moving out of record production by closing or selling off disc-pressing plants, particularly in territories such as the US and the Netherlands, where production costs are high. The US manufacturing operations were sold to Cinram in 2003, before the purchase from Time Warner .In 2005, the Miami-based Warner Bros. Publications, which printed and distributed a broad selection of sheet music, books, educational material, orchestrations, arrangements and tutorials, was sold to Alfred Music Publishing, although the marketing excluded the print music business of WMG’s Word Music ( church hymnals, choral music and associated instrumental music ) .On May 3, 2006, WMG apparently rejected a buyout offer from EMI. [ 49 ] Then WMG offered to buy EMI and it also rejected the offer. In August 2007, EMI was purchased by Terra Firma Capital Partners. [ 50 ] Talk of a possible WMG acquisition of EMI was fanned once again in 2009 after WMG executed a bond offering for $ 1.1 billion, which brought to light WMG’s relatively strong financial position, which was contrasted with the weakened and debt-laden state of EMI. [ 51 ] The same year WMG acquired Rykodisc and Roadrunner Records .In September 2006, after pulling its content from the service earlier in the year, WMG entered into a new licensing khuyến mãi with the video streaming service YouTube. Under the khuyến mãi, WMG would be able to handle advertising sales for its artists ‘ music videos on the service ( as well as monetize user-created videos that include WMG-owned recordings ) and partake in revenue sharing with YouTube, and also collaborate with YouTube on building a ” premium ” user experience for its content and associated channels. [ 52 ] [ 53 ]

On December 27, 2007, Warner announced that it would sell digital music without digital rights management through AmazonMP3, making it the third major label to do so.[54] In 2008, The New York Times reported that WMG’s Atlantic Records became the first major record label to generate more than half of its music sales in the U.S. from digital products.[55] In 2010, Fast Company magazine detailed the company’s transformation efforts in its recorded music division, where it has redefined the relationships it has with artists and diversified its revenue streams through its expansion into growing areas of the music business.[56]

In 2008, WMG and several other major labels made investments in the new music streaming service Spotify.[57][non-primary source needed]

Due to licensing khuyến mãi negotiations between Google and WMG in 2008, music video content licensed by WMG was removed from YouTube. [ 58 ] [ 59 ] In 2009, it was announced that the companies had reached a giảm giá, and videos would be re-added to YouTube. [ 60 ] As of 2017, WMG had extended its khuyến mãi with YouTube. [ 61 ]

In 2009, Warner Music took over its South-East Asian and Korean distribution of EMI audio and video products, including newer domestic releases, which was announced in September 2008. The two companies already enjoyed a successful partnership in India, the Middle East and North Africa, where EMI marketed and distributed Warner Music’s physical product from 2005.[citation needed]

2010 s[edit]

WMG formed a partnership with Một Thành Viên Networks in June 2010 that allowed MTVN to exclusively sell ads on WMG’s premium content ; in turn, views of WMG videos would be counted as views for MTVN. [ 62 ]

In May 2011, WMG announced its sale to Access Industries, a conglomerate controlled by Soviet-born billionaire Len Blavatnik, for US$3.3 billion in cash.[63] The price represented $8.25 a share; a 34% premium over the six-month-before average price, and a 4% premium over the day-before price. Overall, this was a drop of over 70% since 2007.[64] According to the Wall Street Journal, the deal ended a three-month sale process in which as many as 10 bidders, including Los Angeles-based brothers Tom and Alec Gores, and Sony Corp. vied for the company.[65] Blavatnik was a shareholder and former board member of WMG at the time of the purchase announcement.[66] The purchase was completed on July 20, 2011, and the company became private.[67] In August 2011, Stephen Cooper became CEO of Warner Music Group replacing Edgar Bronfman Jr., who became chairman of the company.[68] Bronfman Jr. stepped down as chairman of the company on January 31, 2012.[69]

EMI label purchase and divestment[edit]

In 2013, Warner acquired longtime EMI division Parlophone, along with EMI Classics and some regional EMI operations, from UMG for £ 487 million ( around $ 764.54 million US ). [ 70 ] [ 71 ] This news came after reports that WMG was in talks to acquire EMI ‘ s recorded music business, which was eventually bought by Universal. [ 72 ] The European Commission approved the marketing in May 2013, and Warner closed the acquisition on July 1. [ 73 ] [ 74 ] The EMI Classics roster was absorbed into Warner Classics and the Virgin Classics roster was absorbed into the revived Erato Records. [ 75 ] In November 2013, WMG paid Universal an additional € 30 million for Parlophone, following an arbitration process in respect to the original marketing price. [ 76 ]In order to accommodate a giảm giá made with IMPALA and the Merlin Network when it acquired Parlophone, WMG agreed to offload over USD 200 million worth in catalogues to various independent labels. [ 77 ] The labels had until February 28, năm trước, to inform Warner Music of which artist catalogues they were interested in acquiring, and said artists had to approve of the divestments. [ 78 ] By March năm ngoái, over 140 independent labels had placed bids on over 11,000 Warner Music artists valuing USD 6 billion, far higher than expectations. [ 79 ] In March năm nay, Curb Records acquired Warner Music’s 80 % share of Word Entertainment, though WMG would continue to distribute the label. [ 80 ] In April năm nay, the first confirmed marketing of a Warner Music artist was the back catalogue of English band Radiohead to XL Recordings. [ 81 ] As of the end of May năm nay, WMG had sold the catalogue of Chrysalis Records to Blue Raincoat Music, as well as the catalogues of ten other artists, including Everything But the Girl, Steve Harley và Cockney Rebel, and Lucinda Williams. [ 82 ] [ 83 ] [ 84 ] [ 85 ] In September năm nay, Nettwerk acquired the rights to albums by Guster and Airbourne from Warner Music. [ 86 ]In April 2017, Warner Music agreed to sell the independent distributor Zebralution back to its founders. [ 87 ] On June 1, 2017, WMG divested additional artists, including the catalogues of Hot Chip and Buzzcocks to Domino Recording Company ; Tom Waits to Anti – ; and Howard Jones, Dinosaur Jr., and Kim Wilde to Cherry Red Records. [ 88 ] Cosmos Music Group acquired the rights to Per Gessle and Marie Fredriksson, while Neil Finn ‘ s catalogue moved to his Lester Records label. [ 89 ] On July 6, 2017, Because Music acquired 10 French artists, most of London Records ‘ back catalogue, and The Beta Band, while Concord Music acquired albums by Jewel, Sérgio Mendes, R.E.M., and several rock, blues, and jazz artists. [ 90 ] [ 91 ] [ 92 ] [ 93 ] In August 2017, The Lemonheads and The Groundhogs were transferred to Fire Records. [ 94 ] In October 2017, Strut Records acquired albums by Patrice Rushen and Miriam Makeba. [ 95 ]

In November 2017, T.I.’s catalogue was sold to Cinq Music Group.[96] Woah Dad! acquired over 20 catalogues, including those of Ziggy Marley, Estelle, and several Swedish artists, while Believe Digital acquired the rights to EMF and several French artists.[97] In April 2018, RT Industries acquired seven catalogues from WMG, including Sugar Ray and Fat Joe.[98] In May 2018, New State Music acquired the catalogues of Paul Oakenfold and Dirty Vegas.[99] Other winning bidders included The Echo Label (Thomas Dolby, Sigue Sigue Sputnik and Supergrass), Nature Sounds (Roy Ayers), The state51 Conspiracy (Donovan), PIAS Recordings (Failure), Evolution Music Group (Mr. Big), Playground Music Scandinavia (Olle Adolphson), Metal Blade Records (King Diamond), Snapper Music (Mansun) and its sublabel Kscope (Porcupine Tree), Phoenix Music International (Lulu), Kobalt Label Services (HIM), and Tommy Boy Music (which reclaimed its pre-2002 catalogue and the rights to Brand Nubian, Handsome Boy Modeling School’s White People, Grand Puba, and Club Nouveau). All the labels had to complete their deals by September 30, 2017; though a few announcements came after that date.[100]

Expansion[edit]

In October 2012, WMG became one of the last major labels to sign with Google’s music service. It was also one of the last labels to reach an agreement with Spotify. [ 101 ]In June 2013, WMG expanded into Russia by acquiring Gala Records, best known as the longtime distributor of EMI. [ 102 ] Later that year, Warner Music Russia agreed to locally distribute releases by Disney Music Group [ 103 ] and Sony Music. [ 104 ] Later that year, WMG closed a giảm giá with Clear Channel Media that saw its artists paid for terrestrial radio play for the first time. Clear Channel would get preferential rates for streaming songs through its iHeartRadio service and other trực tuyến platforms. It was believed that the agreement would put pressure on other big labels, including Sony and Universal, to reach similar đơn hàng. [ 105 ]

In 2017, WMG formed a TV and film division, Warner Music Entertainment, led by former MGM executive Charlie Cohen. In March 2020, it hired Kate Shepherd, the former head of entertainment at Ridley Scott Creative Group.[106] This division paired with Imagine Entertainment on a Nat Geo limited series Genius: Aretha, which led to a co-producing and co-financing agreement for a music slate in July 2020.[107]

International labels[edit]

On November 14, 2013, it was determined that Warner Music’s releases in the Middle East would be distributed by Universal Music as a result of the integration of EMI ‘ s branch in said region. [ 108 ] Sony Music India would assume distribution of WMG in India, Sri Lanka, and rest of SAARC countries except Bangladesh. [ 109 ] In December 2013, Warner Music began operating the wholly owned South African subsidiary after acquiring the Gallo’s stakes that it did not own. [ 110 ] In April năm trước, WMG announced that it had acquired Chinese record label Gold Typhoon. [ 111 ]In April năm nay, WMG agreed to distribute most of BMG Rights Management ‘ s catalogue worldwide through Warner’s ADA division, though a few frontline releases would remain distributed by other labels. [ 112 ] [ 113 ]Around the end of May năm nay, WMG acquired the Indonesian label PT Indo Semar Sakti. [ 114 ] Warner Music UK launched The Firepit in May năm nay, a creative content division, innovation centre and recording studio located at their United Kingdom headquarters in London. [ 115 ] On June 2, năm nay, Warner Music acquired Swedish compilation label X5 Music Group. [ 116 ]In September 2017, one week after acquiring American rock label Artery Recordings, WMG acquired the Dutch EDM label Spinnin ‘ Records. [ 117 ] In February 2018, Warner Music launched a division in the Middle East, based in Beirut, Lebanon. Warner Music Middle East will cover 17 markets across North Africa and the Middle East. [ 118 ]In January 2019, WMG signed a Turkish distribution khuyến mãi with Doğan Media Group, which will represent the record company for physical and digital releases. [ 119 ]In May 2019, Warner Music Finland acquired the hip-hop label Monsp Records. [ 120 ] In July 2019, Warner Music Slovakia acquired Forza Music, which owned the former state-owned label Opus Records. [ 121 ] In February 2021, WMG purchased a minority stake in the Saudi Arabian record label Rotana Records. [ 122 ]

Elektra Music Group and further investments[edit]

In July 2017, Warner Music acquired the concert discovery website Songkick. [ 123 ] In May, news truyền thông reported that Warner Music led an investment round in Hooch, a popular subscription-lifestyle application including blockchain-based payment technology. [ 124 ]Announced on June 18, 2018, but effective on October 1, 2018, Warner Music Group launched Elektra Music Group as a stand-alone staffed music company with the labels Elektra Records, Fueled By Ramen, Low Country Sound, Black Cement, and Roadrunner Records. A handful of major artists would transfer from Atlantic. This returned the group back to the Warner-Elektra-Atlantic ( WEA ) triad that had marked the original company organization for decades. [ 125 ]On August 2, 2018, Warner Music announced that it acquired Uproxx Media Group and its properties ( except for BroBible, which will continue to publish independently ) for an undisclosed sum, although Uproxx has raised around $ 43 m ( £ 33 m ) from previous investment, which provides some sense of the firm’s valuation. [ 126 ] In September 2018, WMG acquired German merchandise retailer EMP Merchandising from Sycamore Partners for USD 180 million. [ 127 ]In October 2018, Warner Music Group announced the launch of the WMG Boost seed venture fund. [ 128 ] Several labels of Warner Music moved into the Los Angeles Arts District in 2019 where the company had purchased a former Ford Motor Company assembly plant. [ 129 ]On March 9, 2020, WMG expanded to India, creating the Warner Music India unit based in Mumbai and handling business in other countries for the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation. Jay Mehta ( former executive of Sony Music India ) would take change of the unit as the managing director in April. [ 130 ] Before the division’s foundation, Warner’s releases were distributed in the country by EMI / Virgin Records ( India ) Pvt., and by Sony Music India since EMI’s breakup .In August 2020, Warner Music acquired Tel Aviv – and New York-based IMGN Media in a khuyến mãi worth approximately USD 100 million. [ 131 ] In September 2020, WMG acquired the trực tuyến hip-hop magazine HipHopDX. [ 132 ] In 2021, WMG invested an eight figure sum into global multiplayer gaming platform Roblox. This followed WMG artist Ava Max’s live performance on the platform the previous year. [ 133 ]

Public listing[edit]

Warner Music Group had planned an IPO of current investors ‘ stock in March 2020, but withdrew its IPO just before the March 2 kick off due to the COVID-19 pandemic. [ 134 ] On June 3, 2020, it completed its IPO on Nasdaq, raising almost USD 2 billion with a valuation of $ 12.75 billion, making WMG once again a publicly traded company after previously going private in 2011. [ 8 ] [ 9 ] On June 12, 2020, Tencent announced that it had purchased 10.4 % of Warner Music’s Class A shares, or 1.6 % of the company. [ 135 ] Tencent already owns 10 % of shares of WMG’s largest competitor, Universal Music Group, which it acquired from Vivendi in March. Also, this makes Sony Music the only major music company not directly owned in any percentage by a Chinese company ( it is wholly owned by the Japanese conglomerate Sony ). [ 136 ]

TikTok partnership[edit]

In December 2020, WMG signed a partnership khuyến mãi with TikTok to provide music to their platform for users to use for their content. The giảm giá is expected to help their revenue grow. [ 137 ] [ 138 ]

Arts Music[edit]

On June 6, 2017, Warner Music Group launched a new division, Arts Music, which consists of labels for classical, jazz and children’s music plus musical theatre and film scores. The division was placed under president Kevin Gore, who reports to Eliah Seton, President of ADA Worldwide, the group’s independent distribution and services arm. At the same time, Warner Classics, including the Erato label, while remaining based in Paris and continuing under president Alain Lanceron, were transferred into the new division. Also, a joint venture with Sh-K-Boom/Ghostlight Records, the theatrical music company, was formed, with founder/president Kurt Deutsch being named as senior vice president of theatrical and catalog development for Warner/Chappell Music.[139]

In November 2018, Arts Music signed a multi-year deal with Sesame Workshop to revive the Sesame Street Records label for early 2019.[140] In June 2019, WMG purchased First Night Record, amusical theatre cast recording company, and placed the company within Arts Music.[141] On June 24, 2019, the division launched the licensed Cloudco Entertainment label with the release of the current Holly Hobbie theme song as a part of a multi-season deal.[142] Build-A-Bear Workshop teamed up with Arts Music and Warner Chappell Music in July 2019 to partner on the Build-A-Bear label, with Patrick Hughes and Harvey Russell on board.[143]

The division signed on to become the distributor of Mattel ‘ s music catalog in May 2020. Art Music planned to make available hundreds of never-before-released songs and new songs for existing properties with the digital launch of Thomas và Friends ‘ anniversary album on May 8. [ 144 ]

Music publishing[edit]

Warner Chappell Music dates back to 1811 and the creation of Chappell và Company, a sheet music and instrument merchant in London. In 1929, Jack L. Warner, president of Warner Bros. Pictures Inc., founded Music Publishers Holding Company ( MPHC ) to acquire music copyrights as a means of providing inexpensive music for films and, in 1987, Warner Bros. ‘ corporate parent, Warner Communications, acquired Chappell và Company from PolyGram. Its printed music operation, Warner Bros. Publications, was sold to Alfred Music on June 1, 2005 .Among the historic compositions of which the publishing rights are controlled by WMG are the works of Cole Porter, Richard Rodgers and Lorenz Hart. In the 1930 s and 1940 s, Chappell Music also ran a profitable orchestration division for Broadway musicals, with house arrangers of the caliber of Robert Russell Bennett, Don Walker, Ted Royal and Hans Spialek. Between them they had orchestrated about 90 % of the productions seen up to late 1941. [ 145 ]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Bibliography[edit]

  • Fred Goodman (1997). The Mansion on the Hill: Dylan, Young, Geffen, Springsteen and the Head-on Collision of Rock and Commerce. Jonathan Cape/Random House. ISBN 978-0679743774.

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